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Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest

UC Davis researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
The earliest known usage of tobacco in the Pacific Northwest was smoked using a pipe similar to this one, according to Shannon Tushingham, a UC Davis archaeology research associate. Credit: Shannon Tushingham

(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.

"The study demonstrates that was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the .

Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.

Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.

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在美国发起反倾销案件比在欧盟容易得多。在欧盟,企业必须先通过公众利益测试。
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In October, South Africa brought down its holdings of US government securities to USD 10.3 billion.

Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.

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Even in jobs where you test applicants and those with the top scores are supposed to get the job, I've seen hiring managers fix scores to get the people they like.
国有媒体报道称,中国总理李克强表示,2017年中国经济运行好于预期,并预计年度国内生产总值(GDP)增长率为6.9%左右。
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The 8,000 volunteers who will welcome international visitors to London 2012 have been issued with a 66-page instruction manual, covering everything from foreign etiquette to uniform care and advice on dealing with journalists. But what of the visitors themselves? Could they not do with a manual outlining the customs, manners and practicalities of the islands they are visiting? We hereby present a simple guide to UK etiquette for the 2012 Olympics.
当然,也有一些不那么乐观的消息。随着油价趋稳并随后下跌后,电动汽车的销量马上就开始受到拖累。铃木汽车(Suzuki)在美国市场上日渐式微,同时沃尔沃(Volvo)看起来也还是无力回天。中国——现在已是全球最大的汽车市场——的销售开始放缓,而欧洲依然在衰退中泥足深陷,汽车业产能过剩的根本性问题还是无法解决。
The PPI fell 5.3 per cent year-on-year in January, moderating from December’s -5.9 per cent pace. PPI has remained in negative territory since March 2012, reaching a low of -5.9 per cent for the five consecutive months since August 2015.
房地产经纪公司莱坊(Knight Frank)的数据显示,今年第一季度,香港豪宅租金同比下跌5.2%,跌幅超过内罗毕以外的任何其他城市。就在去年9月价格下跌之后,运动品牌阿迪达斯(Adidas)在香港租入了一间1.3万平方英尺的店铺,租金相比上一个租户、配饰品牌蔻驰(Coach)低了22%。
The Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue model Kate Upton stands 8th on the world's most beautiful women of 2015 list. This modern fashion model was at No. 2 in last year list. She also was named the sexiest women by People magazine.
An early iteration of Summly, called Trimit, was featured in Apple's app store in July 2011 on a list of new and noteworthy offerings. There it was noticed by the influential Silicon Valley blog TechCrunch and quickly came to the attention of an investment group led by Li Ka-shing. When D'Aloisio was approached over email by Li's people at Horizons Ventures, he was only 15-and so far mostly managed to conceal that fact. He'd never met with anyone in the tech world face to face, and the information he'd listed when he registered Trimit spoke only vaguely of a London technology company. It failed to mention that the company's management and technology teams-in fact, its entire workforce-consisted of a single kid in a suburban bedroom who wasn't yet old enough to drive.

Some of the biggest winners of the night included Lambert, Eric Church, Jason Aldean and Luke Bryan. Lambert led the pack with three wins for Female Vocalist of the Year, Single Record of the Year and Song of the Year for "Over You."
不过,增长疲软对年终奖的影响或许在2015年已见顶。当时,66%的白领员工没有收到年终奖。而2016年的比例实际上比2014年都有所好转,那一年未收到年终奖的比例为61%。
The school ranks first for alumni satisfaction.
根据1894家上市公司公布的2016年财务年报的数据显示,金融和地产业的高管薪酬最高。

The study is available online.


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Why? Just add in the intensifying anger after the Supreme Court's decisions over same-sex marriage issues and gays, add in the growing anger over abortions, Obamacare, gun control, food stamps, the new voter suppression pushed by GOP governors, plus more threats by conservatives and the tea party to dig in their heels and fight to overturn everything and increase austerity too.

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Citation: Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest (2013, March 1) retrieved 18 November 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-uncover-earliest-tobacco-pacific-northwest.html
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